Do you know the difference between active and passive sentences? Today you’ll learn to master it!
In an active sentence, the person or thing that does something is the subject. Then we have the verb, and then the object:
Someone – ate – an apple.
However, sometimes we might want to start the sentence with the object because we think it is more important than the person who does something, or we might not even want to mention who does something. In these cases, we use the passive form:
An apple – was eaten – (by someone).
We don’t need to say “by someone” in this case because it is not important, but we’ll see more about this later. First, let’s think about how to form the passive.
First, the part before the verb (subject) moves after the verb, with the word “by”, and the part after the verb (object) moves before the verb.
Active: Someone – … – an apple [Símbolo] Passive: An apple – … – by someone
What happens with the verb? We have to think what the tense is. In our example, “ate” is the past simple, so we need to write the same tense, the past simple, with the verb to be, “was/were”. We need to use “was” because “an apple” is singular. Then, we add the verb of our example, “to eat”, in the past participle form (the third column for irregular verbs, or just –ed for regular verbs).
An apple was eaten by someone.
The tense of the verb “to be” will depend on the tense of the verb in the first sentence. After the verb “to be”, the main verb is always in the third column. Here you have an example with some tenses so you can see the change:
When do we use the passive? Here you have a few cases with examples:
When we want to change the focus of the sentence:
- Romeo and Juliet was written by William Shakespeare. (We are focusing more in the book than in the writer.)
When the person or the thing that does the action is unknown, obvious or unimportant. In this cases, we don’t need to write the “by” part at the end:
- My wallet has been stolen. (We don’t know who stole it)
- In Spain, Spanish is spoken. (It is obvious that it refers to Spanish people)
- I was told the exam is on Monday. (The person who told me is unimportant)
In facts or scientific writing, to make it sound more formal:
- The chemical is places in a test tube and the data entered into the computer.
In formal writing to avoid using “someone/people/they” which is not very informative:
- The enrolment period will be closed soon.
When the subject is very long:
- I was surprised by how well the students did in the exam.
Now it’s your time to lose fear of using the passive and making it part of your daily English. It will make you sound much more natural!
We can think of vocabulary as the heart of a language. We need words to be able to listen, read, write and speak. We need words to use grammar. You need vocabulary to pass your exam!Read more ›
In this part of the exam we have four parts. Don’t panic, it is not as difficult as it seems! It lasts 40 minutes.Read more ›
As you should already know, the B2 writing paper consists of 2 parts. In Part 1 you always have to write an essay and there are NO options for which question you want to answer. Here is an example of a part 1 essay question:
As you can see, in the essay there are 3 points you need to discuss. These are very important because they will help you structure your essay. First of all we need to discuss point 3 which you need to come up with yourself.
I strongly recommend writing your idea in the gap on the paper next to the number 3 (if you’re doing a paper based exam) or write the 3 points on the note paper on your desk (if you’re doing a computer based exam) because this way you won’t forget or get confused what you’re writing about.
Very commonly, even in a well written essay, point 3 isn’t clear to the examiner which will reduce your content mark and possibly your communicative achievement mark too. Please also make sure your third point is on the same topic as the first two. In the example above your third point could be:
- Plastic waste (but for rivers and seas you would need to write about over fishing)
How do you get a good mark for your essay?
Well, firstly you need to know who you’re writing the essay for and whether it’s formal or informal. Usually in part 1, the intended reader of your essay is a teacher, so it should be semi-formal. This means no colloquial language, however everyday contractions (eg: don’t, wouldn’t, it’s) are allowed.
Next, what’s the aim of the essay? The essay should aim to give an opinion as a result of a clear discussion. This means that the whole essay should be unbiased and give all sides of the argument. Only in the conclusion should you include your opinion, and this opinion should be based on what you have discussed in the essay.
Last but not least, your essay to be well organised. Having a clear essay structure will increase your organisation mark and also your communicative achievement mark. Here is the recommended structure to use for your essay. A title is not necessary but can be included if you want to.
In the introduction, introduce the essay topic, for example: Nowadays there is a lot of pollution … NOT I’m going write an essay about … also, don’t include your opinion at this stage in the essay.
Next you should write one paragraph per point in the question and each one should be of a similar length. In each paragraph include a problem/solution, for/against or advantage/disadvantage depending on what the question asks for. In the example above this would be a problem and a solution. Again, don’t include your opinion at this point.
To complete your essay, you need to write a conclusion. If you have written too much and run out of time or space for your conclusion your communicative achievement mark will go down. Your conclusion should answer the original question and give your opinion but it using the information you have discussed in your essay.
Finally, here is an example of a good essay for the question we have been talking about and good luck with your essay writing!!